yuan_hy 发表于 2020-1-20 14:35:59

蓝译:研究生进行文献综述写作的基本步骤

  文献综述主要反映当前某一学科领域或者某知识点过去、现在及目前状况见解和建议,针对某具体研究领域分析和描述前人已经完成的工作,当前存在的主要问题是什么,以及可能的发展方向和解决办法是什么。对于研究生而言,撰写与自己课题内容相关的高质量综述,不仅可深入掌握相关知识背景、了解最新前沿进展、而且可凝练科学问题、达到展开实验设计的目的。下面,蓝译编译就来谈谈研究生写作文献综述的基本步骤:
  一、精准选题,确立意义。从根本上说,综述的最终目的,是将学科领域的信息传递、传播给本领域的同行研究者,使得同行的研究者本来需要从搜索、下载及阅读数百十篇文章中寻找的信息,可以从一篇综述中就可以找到答案,并可从中掌握目前整个领域研究的现状及发展方向。由于选题的角度,很大程度决定了综述质量的高低。因此,文献综述的选题要精准、新颖,范围不宜过大、过宽泛,否则查阅文献花费的时间太多,影响归纳整理规律。
  二、开篇破题,统领全文。综述写作较难的是前言及结论部分,在前言部分,一般可以按照三段式的写作布局,应该着重从研究背景、研究目的、研究方法出发,着重阐述如下几个问题:目前该领域的研究现状如何?存在哪些问题?在本研究中我们拟采用什么方法,着重回答了什么问题?以及可能对本领域的研究的影响和意义。简单概括起来就是:讲背景、提问题、叙方法;以达到明现状、知不足、吊胃口的目的。
  三、列好提纲,构建框架。提纲就是文章的骨架,一般来说,读者在阅读完题目及摘要部分后,马上就是阅读对文章的大标题,基本就知道这篇综述内主要包含了哪些研究内容。因此,可以说逻辑条理清晰,角度独特的框架结构是文献综述的核心支撑。
  四、收集资料,撰写主题。确定好了选题及文章框架之后,就可分别进行详细阐述,此时需把握好几个原则:
  1.切忌展开太深太细,这样显得十分烦冗,要做到适可而止,同时又要避免蜻蜓点水、记流水账;
  2.要防止泛泛而谈式的空洞写作,应侧重规律的挖掘和总结;
  3.注意对研究内容适当扩张式分析,综合运用重排、组合、对比、总结,综合运用发散性思维和类比性思考,对现有的规律进行深入分析,提出新的、不带任何综述写作本人看法的观点;
  4.收集资料的过程中应阅读最原始文献,文献来源可以包括专业期刊、科技报告、专利文献、学位论文、会议文献、专著等,尽量避免或者尽可能少采用二次文献搜集文献资料。
  五、瞻前顾后,首尾呼应。引言及具体内容完成之后,要注意对全文适当总结以及高度概括。也就是所谓的展望、结束语或者结论。该段文字可以系统的、客观的总结目前的研究状态,最新进展以及当前存在的问题,对下一步的研究提出合理的思考。该段文字应高度凝练、系统概括,往往是综述最难写作的地方。若是总结不当,很容易与引言混淆;若是写作过于具体,又容易重复文章的结论。这部分写作也可以采用三段式的写作方法:
  首先对文章的结论进行总结与升华,不仅仅是简单重复上述中的结论,更要着重突出从文章的结论中得到的写作意义,回答为什么写的原因。
  其次应该对文章里的结论,结合最新的文献,着重阐述我们的思考或者结论对现有研究作了何种补充、有何新意?哪些研究观点较为一致?有没有存在争议的地方?存在争议地方的可能原因是什么?这种争议甚至是矛盾该如何进行解决?现今研究的难点、焦点、热点是什么?下一步研究起点、突破点、制高点可能是什么?也就是回答以后怎么做的问题。
  在文章的最后一段,应该对全文进行提纲挈领式总结,对文章的写作意义进行高度概括与凝练。
  文献综述写作,欢迎咨询蓝译(www.blueedit.cn),蓝译是一站式医学科研学术服务平台,专业提供SCI论文评估、SCI论文发表、医学论文编译、SCI论文翻译润色、职称论文发表、文献检索以及留学访学等服务,主要协助科研工作者向SCI期刊发表医学论文。


胡萝卜炖白兔 发表于 2020-1-20 15:03:17

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